Furupraktbilla, Chalcophora mariana

Med en kroppslengde på 25-33 mm er furupraktbilla er den aller største praktbilla i Nord-Europa, og kan ikke forveksles med noen annen art. I Middelhavsområdet finnes imidlertid flere lignende arter. Den er bronsefarget med svarte, uregelmessige opphøyde strukturer på oversiden. Kroppen er bred og beinene er svært kraftige. Antennene er korte og tynne. Larven er uten bein, hvit med brunt hode og kan bli opptil 7 cm lang. I Norge eksisterer gamle funn fra Nedenes i Aust-Agder, Kragerø i Telemark og Ljan i Oslo, alle fra 1800-tallet. Nyere funn kjennes kun fra Drangedal i Telemark, hvor den er kjent fra tre lokaliteter som ligger nær hverandre. Fra Sverige er den kjent fra en del lokaliteter i sørøst, men har gått dramatisk tilbake og er ikke funnet siden 1995. Arten er ellers utbredt fra Vest Europa til Sibir.

Furupraktbilla utvikles i gamle, grove stammer og stubber av furu på varme og soleksponerte steder. Brannskadde stubber og virke som ligger nær bakken prefereres. Larvene går langt inn i veden og utviklingen tar normalt 3-6 år. Arten kan ha tilhold i samme stubbe gjennom mange generasjoner. Det er derfor viktig at trærne har vært seintvoksende og har et høyt tjæreinnhold slik at riktig fuktighet og konsistens bevares i lang tid. Forpuppingen skjer langt inni veden og de voksne billene klekker i slutten av juli og begynnelsen av august. Mye tyder på at den overvintrer som voksen, men det er ikke kjent om eggleggingen foregår på høsten eller forsommeren.

Furupraktbilla er kritisk truet i hele Skandinavia pga mangel på egnet habitat. Furu i så grove dimensjoner som furupraktbilla krever, har blitt svært sjelden pga hogst. Grovt furutømmer er fortsatt attraktivt virke bl a. i villmarkspanel, til møbler og stolper. I Norge har furupraktbilla klimatiske betingelser kun i de varmeste områdene i lavlandet på Østlandet. Det finnes derfor svært få potensielle forekomstområder igjen, og de gamle lokalitetene har høyst sannsynlig gått ut i Norge som ellers i Skandinavia. Forekomstarealet til bestanden i Drangedal er svært lite, men det kan finnes oversette bestander i nærheten eller tilgrensende dalstrøk med egnet habitat.

26 thoughts on “Furupraktbilla, Chalcophora mariana

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