Humler i fjellet

Fjellhumle, Bombus balteatus, på fjellsmelle fra Finnshøa, Dovrefjell, juli 2014. Foto: F. Ødegaard.

 

Nesten halvparten av Norges landareal består av fjell og vidder. Den som har sansene med seg på fjellvandringer, og leter på de rette stedene, finner fort ut at fjellet har en rik humlefauna. Fjellhumlene er noen skikkelige tøffinger og kan fly som små kanonkuler gjennom lufta over lange avstander både i sludd og gråvær. Sju av humleartene våre finnes nesten utelukkende i fjellet.

Bruk ører og øyne

I slutten av mai eller begynnelsen av juni, når vierbuskene begynner å blomstre, er det lett å oppdage store mengder av humledronninger som samler pollen og nektar. Utover sommeren, når blomstringen er mer spredt, er det vanskeligere å finne fjellhumlene. Og faktisk er det viktigere å bruke ørene enn øynene på humlejakt i fjellet. Det er lett å høre lyden av ei fjellhumle som surrer i nærheten, men til tross for skarpe farger og stor kroppsstørrelse, er det ofte vanskelig å lokalisere humlene når det er store arealer og lave planter i omgivelsene.

Mange av fjellviddene virker nokså fattige uten særlig mye blomster om sommeren og da er det heller ikke mange humler å finne. Men, av og til kan man også se humler i målrettet flukt i høy fart langt over bakken. Fjellhumlene kan åpenbart fly over lange avstander da det kan være langt mellom gode matkilder og bolplassen. Dette er vanlig å se om våren når dronningene er på næringssøk, og da kan humlene være aktive både i sludd og gråvær når været skifter fort i fjellet. Det gjelder altså å finne blomsteransamlinger i fjellet både for humlene og dersom man vil studere fjellhumler.

Et rikt mangfold

Fjellet har altså en helt egen humlefauna, men mange av de vanlige lavlandsartene kan også opptre over tregrensa. I lavalpin vegetasjonssone, der det er rikelig med vier og lyngvekster, er det særlig arter innen underslekten Pyrobombus som dominerer (særlig berghumle, lapphumle, lynghumle), samt lynggjøkhumle. Arter som lys jordhumle, kilejordhumle, markhumle, tyvhumle, åkerhumle og trehumle kan også følge med over tregrensa, men er ikke så vanlige som i lavlandet. Når vi beveger oss oppover i høyden, til mellomalpin vegetasjonssone, er det fjellhumlene (underslekten Alpinobombus) som dominerer. De fire artene av fjellhumler (fjellhumle, alpehumle, polarhumle og tundrahumle) trives best i kalkrike områder i fjellet. Artene har relativt lang tunge og henter derfor nektar helst fra erteplanter. På kalkrik berggrunn i fjellet, og særlig i fjellheivegetasjon, er det ofte mye setermjelt, blåmjelt og reinmjelt som er blant favorittene. Her kan du også finne Norges største humle, tundrahumla med sin helt utrolige biologi.

20140720_165100

Fjellvidder med kalkrik berggrunn i mellomalpin sone er perfekte habitater for fjellhumler (Alpinobombus). Bildet er fra Finnshøa, Dovrefjell (Oppdal, Sør-Trøndelag) med utsikt nedover Drivdalen. Foto: F. Ødegaard.

 

Klatrer oppover i fjellet

I gammel litteratur angis ofte 1300 eller 1400 m oh som maksimal høydegrense for fjellhumlene (f.eks. Løken 1973). Hvis en er heldig med været, og går på de rette stedene, er det nå for tiden ikke uvanlig å finne alle fjellhumleartene på 1500 m oh i fjellet i Sør-Norge, og trolig enda høyere i kalkrike, klimatisk gunstig beliggende hellinger og på toppene. Og det er ikke bare at humlene kan hente næring så høyt til fjells. Sommeren 2014 fant jeg faktisk et bol av alpehumle på en fjelltopp på Dovrefjell hele 1524 m oh. Jeg kjenner ikke til at humlebol er funnet høyere til fjells. At fjellhumlene anlegger bol på fjelltoppene, er neppe en tilfeldighet. Bortsett fra at de må kunne takle de det tøffe klimaet, er det trolig flere fordeler med å bo på toppen. For det første, er det tidlig snøfritt på rabbene og fjellheiene, men det kan også ha sammenheng med at humlene samler seg på toppene for næringssøk eller paring. Samtidig kan toppunktet være plassert i optimal avstand fra flest mulige matkilder. I hviken grad fjellhumlene regulært anlegger bol på fjelltoppene gjenstår å se.

Kanskje er det klimaendringer som har ført humlene oppover i høyden, men det er også mulig at folk i liten grad har lett etter humler i høyfjellet. Dersom humlene virkelig trekker oppover i høyden, kan dette være et problem der fjellene er lave og humlene ikke har noen steder å flykte når toppen er nådd. Dette er imidlertid neppe et problem særlig mange steder i Norge, men i flere andre land har fjellhumlene havnet på rødlista som følge av mildere klima. På samme måte som med andre fjellinsekter, kan en finne ansamlinger av fjellhumler på fjelltopper. Dette gjelder særlig på varme finværsdager med lite vind utpå sommeren. Hos reinsbrems bl.a. antar man at dette er en effektiv strategi for å finne en paringspartner. Om våren, er det heller ikke uvanlig å finne de fire fjellhumleartene under tregrensa. Men, etterhvert som snøen trekker seg tilbake og blomstringen starter høyere oppover i fjellet utover sommeren, trekker fjellhumlene oppover i høyden.

Alpehmle

Er dette dronningen av Norges høyest beliggende humlebol? Denne alpehumla, Bombus alpinus, hadde anlagt bol i lavheivegetasjon helt på toppen av Orkelhøa (1524 m oh) på Dovrefjell (Oppdal, Sør-Trøndelag). Her er den på vei ut av bolet sitt. Foto: F. Ødegaard 23.07.2014.

 

Humler på nett

Les mer om Humler i Norge i “Humler på Nett”

Her kan du laste ned, lese om og se fantastiske bilder av alle humleartene i Norge.

De sju fjellartene av humler finner du her: fjellhumle, alpehumle, polarhumle, tundrahumle, berghumle, lapphumle og lynggjøkhumle.

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